Plastic waste is a concern that is growing due to its nondegradable nature. Many species of microorganisms naturally produce polyhydroxyalkanoates, macromolecule-polyesters that may be used to replace conventional plastics. A variety of microorganisms can completely biodegrade PHAs within a year, which is unlike petroleum-derived plastic that takes decades to degrade. Carbon dioxide and water are produced during this biodegradation, which is returned to the environment. Many methods of mass-producing PHAs have been attempted. Genetically modified microorganisms can be used to establish novel production mechanisms. PHA production, as well as the expression of a few genes, must be maximized in the host for this task. Despite significant advances that have been achieved in generating transgenic organisms, acquiring large quantities of PHA at reasonable costs continues to remain a difficulty. The increasing awareness as well as the promising nature of utilizing microorganisms as a source of polyhydroxyalkanoates are highlighted in this review.