Iron deficiency anemia is the world's most common dietary deficiency-affecting people of all ages and economic classes. The current research was performed to assess the quantitative changes in the cytoplasmic diameter CD, nuclear diameter ND, and nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio (N/C) of squamous cells collected from iron deficiency anemia patients' buccal smears and also to evaluate the effects of serum ferritin concentrations on cellular morphometry. This was a prospective cross-sectional study. The research group consisted of twenty-five cases of iron deficiency and twenty-five cases of apparently healthy controls. Scrapings were taken from both group's buccal mucosa and stained with Papanicolaou stain. The ratio ND, CD, and N/C were measured using the Optika camera microscope. The results of this study revealed a highly significant and positive correlation between serum ferritin and ND, and a significant inverse correlation with ND and N/C ratio, as well as significant differences in anemic patients and controls in CD, ND, and N/C ratio. The significant reduction in serum ferritin from anemia with iron deficiency contributes to morphometric changes in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells.