During last two decades, extensive attention has been paid on the management of environmental pollution caused by hazardous materials. A number of methods has been developed for removal of such substances like precipitation, evaporation, ion-exchange etc. However these methods have several disadvantages. This review highlights the alternative biological agent abundantly present in nature i.e Microalgae as a potential sink for removal of such toxic substances from the surrounding. Microalgal biomass has also been used to remove heavy metal and in wastewater treatment facilities, the microalgae can be used to reduce the amount of toxic chemicals needed to clean and purify water The microalgae either accumulate or adsorb or metabolise these noxious elements into substantial level.