2020 Volume 11 Issue 3

Tomato Traits Improvement for Multi-Circle Hydroponics with Target Hybridization

 

Balashova I.T.*, Sirota S.M., Pinchuk E.V.


Abstract

The effectiveness of target hybridization techniques was evaluated in this paper. Productive maternal plants with larger-sized fruits and early ripening dwarf paternal plants were involved in the target crossings. F1 hybrids and their F2 progeny resulted from the self-pollination of F1 plants were produced. Tall plants and dwarf plants of the F2 population segregated strictly by Mendel’s low (3:1). With help of dispersion analysis six parental forms and three hybrids, we selected the more productive plants with large fruit sizes among the dwarf plants, then obtained the seed progeny of these selected plants and studied the heritability dwarfism and large fruit size, in F3 hybrids. It was confirmed that crossing between tall maternal forms with large fruit size and dwarf early ripening paternal forms leads to a reduction in plant height to the dwarf father. These traits were maintained in F3. Therefore, the dwarfism of Solanum Lycopersicum L., which is needed for multi-circle hydroponic technology, is inherited from the parental type, and the fruit weigh is inherited from the maternal type. To obtain new tomato forms for multi-circle hydroponics, maternal plants with large fruit and dwarf paternal forms must be crossed.

Keywords: tomato, breeding, heritability, dwarf-trait, mass of 1 fruit-trait.


Introduction

Multi-circle hydroponic technology (MHT) is a new modular technology of vertical farming, which allows using the vertical area of the greenhouse and to save energy as many other studies, water, and nutrient resources (Chakeri, et al., 2018; Lashgary, et al., 2019; Rashid, et al., 2018; Gull & Kausar, 2019). The market of vertical farming in the world can be characterized as capacious and fast-growing (Global Industry Report, 2014-2025; http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/, 2017). But in the Russian Federation, this market is still developing. The main vegetable crops are not represented in it. Using the sporophyte selection, we obtained the new varieties of dwarf tomato Natasha (with red fruits) and Timosha (with yellow fruits) special for MHT in 2017 (Balashova et al., 2019).

But the fruits of these varieties are small because dwarf-genes controlling the height of the plant are influenced by the mass of the fruit, and recessive alleles control the small size of the fruit (http://solgenomics.net/locus/428/view). In previous articles we have shown that the trait “average mass of a fruit" in Solanum Lycopersicum L. can be inherited from the maternal type and the trait “height of the stem” can be inherited from the paternal type (Balashova et al., 2014; Balashova et al., 2016).  Therefore, we selected 9 maternal forms with good productivity and large fruits and 7 paternal dwarf early ripening forms from the working collection (about 1500 samples).

The main purpose of our study is to obtain new forms of tomato with the largest fruits in combination with low stem for multi-circle hydroponic technology. 

Materials and methods

Materials of our study were 3 high productive maternal forms with large fruits (Table 1) and 3 dwarf early-ripening paternal forms (Table 2) which were used to cross them.

 

 

 

Table 1.Maternal forms characteristics for target hybridization. Polycarbonate greenhouse “Richel” (France). FSVC. 2010-2011

Name of maternal forms

Productivity of a plant, gram, 

Mass of a fruit, gram, 

Number of fruits on the plant, 

Plant height, cm, 

Period “sprouts – mature fruits”, days, 

Forms with small fruits (as “cherry”)

1

St - Funtik

221

St

53

St

4

St

46

St

110

St

2

Мо 411

614

+ 393

16

- 37

34

+ 30

91

+45

106

- 4

Forms with large fruits

3

846

+ 625

79

+ 26

11

+ 7

75

+29

96

- 14

4

Кrainyi Sever

842

+ 621

95

+ 42

9

+ 5

88

+42

108

- 2

LSD05

129

LSD05

16

LSD05

3

LSD05

16

LSD05

7

 

Table 2. The paternal forms the characteristics of the target hybridization. Polycarbonate greenhouse “Richel” (France). FSVC. 2011-2012

Name of paternal forms

Plant height, cm, 

Period “sprouts – mature fruits”, days, 

Productivity of a plant, gram, 

Mass of a fruit, gram, 

Number of fruits on the plant, 

Forms with small fruits (as “cherry”)

1

St - Funtik

46

St

110

St

221

St

53

St

4

St

2

Komnatnyi

33

- 13

108

- 2

292,2

+ 71,2

19

- 34

20

+16

3

3С

42

- 4

103

- 7

248,6

+ 27,6

11

- 42

21

+ 17

4

10C

36

- 10

105

- 5

303,8

+ 82,8

12

- 41

21

+ 17

LSD05

16

LSD05

7

LSD05

76

LSD05

12

LSD05

10

 

 

Maternal forms with large fruits and dwarf early-ripening paternal forms were crossed using the target hybridization technique. F1- progenies were obtained. Then F2 –progenies were obtained from the self-pollination of F1-progenies.  F2 –progenies were divided strictly according to Mendel law: 3 portions of high plants and 1 portion of low (dwarf) plants. We selected dwarf plants from each combination. We selected early ripening plants with large fruits and good productivity among dwarf plants. Then F3 –progenies were obtained from the self-pollination of these plants. We evaluated the effect of target hybridization on F3 –progeny using dispersion analysis (Dospekhov, 1985).

Results and Discussion

The effectiveness of target hybridization was evaluated in F3 –the progeny of 3 F1-hybrid combinations: ♀ Мо 411 x 3С, 1C x ♂10С, ♀ Krainyi Sever x ♂ Komnatnyi. Plants of all selected maternal forms were highly productive, 1C and Krainyi Sever plants had large fruits (Table 1). Plants of all selected paternal forms were dwarfing and early-ripening. First of all, we evaluated inheritance, stem dwarfism.  The results of the dispersion analysis show that the plant height in the F3 –progeny is maintained at the level of the dwarf parental form (Table 3). Therefore, we confirmed the correction of our proposal regarding the inheritance tomato trait “the height of the plant” on the paternal type.

 

 Table 3: Lowering the height of the tomato plant led to the  hybridization of thetarget. Polycarbonate greenhouse “Richel” (France). FSVC. 2013

Parental forms and F3

The height of the plant, by repetitions, cm

, cm

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

First combination

Мо 411

95

90

93

90

88

92

90

90

93

95

91.6

38

33

35

35

35

33

35

38

35

37

35.4

F3 Мо411 x

33

37

33

38

35

32

30

37

35

30

34.0

LSD05

2.5

Second combination

1C

53

57

57

55

55

60

50

55

53

53

54.8

10С

37

35

37

32

38

40

33

37

45

37

37.1

F3 1C x ♂10 С

43

40

38

37

42

38

40

38

37

32

38.5

LSD05

4.3

Third combination

Krainyi Sever

58

50

55

55

58

57

53

55

57

57

55.5

Komnatnyi

32

28

30

27

28

27

28

28

28

28

28.4

F3Krainyi Sever x Komnatnyi

18

17

22

15

20

18

22

18

22

17

18.9

LSD05

1.7

 

 

Second, the main trait of plant productivity “the mass of a fruit” is evaluated in the parental forms and F3 –progenies. The results of the dispersion analysis show that the mass of a fruit is significantly increased (Table 4). But it was only in those cases thatmaternal forms with large size fruits and dwarf paternal forms were used in the target crossings. Maternal forms with good productivity, but with small- size fruits give small size fruit-progenies (Table 4 – first combination).

 

 

Table 4: Increasing the mass of a tomato fruit resulted in a target hybridization. Polycarbonate greenhouse “Richel” (France). FSVC. 2013

Parental forms and F3

The mass of a tomato fruit, by repetitions, g

, g

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

First combination

Мо 411

14

18

12

15

12

15

16

17

13

17

14.9

10

12

8

10

12

9

11

11

8

10

10.1

F3 Мо411 x

9

10

9

9

9

8

9

7

9

8

8.7

LSD05

0.98

Second combination

1C

74

84

77

84

74

71

84

79

88

84

79.9

10С

9

10

8

10

11

11

8

12

10

9

9.8

F3 1C x ♂10 С

18

14

19

16

22

21

18

14

16

18

17.6

LSD05

3.7

Third combination

Krainyi Sever

27

48

37

46

50

46

38

26

56

50

42.3

Komnatnyi

7

8

7

9

10

7

8

6

10

9

8.1

F3Krainyi Sever x Komnatnyi

17

16

14

16

14

18

12

16

14

12

14.9

LSD05

1.5

 

 

Therefore, the results of our evaluation confirmed that the hybridization strategy was correct: the plant height was reduced to the level of the “dwarf” paternal form. And “the mass of one fruit” increased significantly when we used the maternal form with large fruits in the target hybridization.  We are pleased that our conclusion is consistent with the position of some American and Italian researchers, who showed that the quantitative trait locus, which controls the size of the tomato fruit,is located in carpels and forms the ovary on the plant (Frary et al., 2000). As a result of studies, we obtained two new tomato varieties with average fruits by target hybridization named Ognivo and Malenikyi Muk (Figures 1 and 2). They were registered at the State Russian List of Breeding Achievements in 2020.

 

 

Figure 1. Tomato variety Ognivo: A – individual plant, B – plants at the multi-circle hydroponics.

Figure 2. Tomato variety Malenikyi Muk: A – individual plant, B – plants at the multi-circle hydroponics.

 

Conclusion

Classical genetic methods maintain actuality in practice breeding and inheritance and heritability studies as key to commercial crop traits. The genetics of Solanum Lycopersicum L. genetics is well developed, but specific approach is necessary to decide on special breeding tasks. The heritability analysis of the main traits in F1 tomato progeny, conducted from 2009-2011, revealed some regularities for further use in breeding practice. We found for the first time that the main fruit yield parameters of Solanum Lycopersicum L., average fruit weigh (h2 = 0.99) and average fruit number per plant (h2 = 0,96) are inherited from the maternal type (Balashova et al., 2014), and dwarfism (h2 = 0.83) early ripening (h2 = 0.73) are inherited from the paternal type (Balashova et al., 2016). The effectiveness of target hybridization technics was evaluated in this paper. Productive maternal plants with larger-sized fruits and early ripening dwarf paternal plants were involved in the target crossings. F1 hybrids and their F2 progeny are due to the self-pollination of F1 plants were produced. Tall plants and dwarf plants of the F2 population segregated strictly by Mendel’s low (3:1). With help of dispersion analysis of six parental forms and three hybrids, we selected the more productive plants with large fruit size among the dwarf plants, then obtained seed progeny of these selected plants and studied the heritability of two traits, dwarfism, and large fruit size, in the F3 hybrids. It was found out that crossing between tall maternal plants with large fruit size and dwarf early ripening paternal plants leads to a reduction in plant height to the dwarf father.

This trait was maintained in F3 which we had already verified. The heritability of the average fruit weigh on the maternal side also has been confirmed in F3 progeny. In F3 hybrids derived from crossing maternal plants 1C and Krainiy Sever with large fruit size, the average fruit weigh increased two times compared to the parental forms. This trait was maintained in progeny despite the negative effects of d genes on some quantitative characteristics. Therefore, the dwarfism of Solanum Lycopersicum L., which is required for multicircle hydroponic technology, is inherited from the parental type, and the fruit weigh from the maternal type. Thus, to obtain new tomato forms for multi-circle hydroponics, maternal plants with large fruit and dwarf paternal forms must be crossed. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Academician Alexandr Zhuchenko for his collection of tomato marker mutations and the tomato genetics monograph  by Professor Sulukhan Temirbekova and the director of Federal Scientific Vegetable Center, Professor Alexei Soldatenko, for their support our studies.

References

Balashova, I. T., Sirota, S. M., Kozar, E. G., & Pivovarov, V. F. (2016, August). Target tomato breeding for special hydroponic technology. In 20th EUCARPIA Congress, 29August-1September (p. 343).

Balashova, I., Sirota, S., & Pinchuk, Y. (2019, November). Vertical vegetable growing: creating tomato varieties for multi-tiered hydroponic installations. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 395, No. 1, p. 012079). IOP Publishing. (DOI:10.1088/1755-1355/395/1/012079). 

Balashova, I., Sirota, S., Balashova, N., Kozar, E., & Pinchuk, E. (2014, April). The Heritability Analysis Main Tomato Traits for the Special Hydroponic Technology (On Narrow Benches). In Book of Abstracts of XVIIIth EUCARPIA Meeting, Vegetable Section, Tomato Working Group.

Chakeri, S. N., Eslami, M., & Kalantar, M. (2018). Evaluation and Analysis of Monitoring of Productivity of Greenhouse Cucumber in Yazd Province. Int. J. Pharm. Res. Allied Sci7(2), 160-167.

Dospekhov B.A. (1985). Metodika polevogo opita, Moscow, Kolos, 252s., ill (in Russian).

Frary, A., Nesbitt, T. C., Frary, A., Grandillo, S., Van Der Knaap, E., Cong, B., ... & Tanksley, S. D. (2000). fw2. 2: a quantitative trait locus key to the evolution of tomato fruit size. Science289(5476), 85-88. DOI: 10.1126/science. 289.5476.85.

Global Industry Report, 2014-2025, April 2017. Report ID: IVR 1-68038-797-1.

Gull, M., & Kausar, A. (2019). Screening the Variability in Salt Tolerance of Sorghum Bicolor L. by Nutrients Uptake and Growth Analysis of Four Genotypes. Pharmacophore10(2),43-50.

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Lashgary, F., Abdpour, A., & Iravani, H. (2019). Investigating the Effective Management Skills of Greenhouses in Producing Healthy Greenhouse Products in Alborz Province. World8(4), 58-63.

Rashid, F. L., Hadi, A., Al-Garah, N. H., & Hashim, A. (2018). Novel phase change materials, MgO nanoparticles, and water based nanofluids for thermal energy storage and biomedical applications. Int. J. Pharm. Phytopharmacol. Res8(1), 46-56.

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