Adaptive chess sport can strongly stimulate the vitality of the patients and preserve their existing psychophysical potential through the exercise of creative and mental abilities. The effect of adaptive chess is based on the satisfaction of the psychophysical needs of those with weakened health, but preserved cognitive capabilities of the brain. Comparing the results of a questionnaire among middle-aged and elderly chess players with musculoskeletal problems in Moscow revealed a number of problems in the organization of adaptive chess sports. The most important problems were a reduction in the number of sports institutions of additional education and difficulties with the formation of the coaching staff in adaptive chess. The conducted research showed the high efficiency of regular chess trainings in terms of stimulating the chess player's body. Even subjects in the control group showed an increase in the effectiveness of playing chess by 43% in the first group and 93.5% in the second group compared to the preliminary stage of the study.