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2020 Volume 11 Issue 1

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Approach in the Emergency Department: Review Article


Bayan A. Almusailhi, Najdi I. Najdi, Sahira J. Al-Nahari, Ali K. Aljifry, Saud A. Alyabis, Omar O. A. Aljohani, Angham G. Alharbi, Mohammad A. Turkistani, Mohammed M. A. Alshahrani, Arwa A. Alshammari, Faisal M. Murayr
Abstract

Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an endocrinological emergency that occurs as a direct result of a total or relative deficiency of insulin and is potentially life-threatening. Lack of insulin results in attenuation of the other regulatory hormones. Objectives: In this paper, we will review the available literature discussing the features, diagnosis, and emergency management of DKA. Methodology: We conducted the literature search within the PubMed database using the keywords: “Ketoacidosis” and “DKA treatment” and “insulin” and “diabetic” with dates from 1990 to 2020. Review: DKA presents clinically in a triad of metabolic acidosis, hyperglycemia, and hyperketonemia, and/or hyperketouria. In most cases, DKA is accompanied by a varying level of circulatory collapse. Individuals who suffer from type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) that is poorly controlled are by far the most vulnerable to DKA. The management goals of DKA revolve around the control of four different imbalances which are (1) hyperglycemia, (2) hypovolemia, (3) electrolytes imbalance, and (4) management of precipitating factors. Conclusion: In conclusion, the management of DKA is complex and needs cautious attention while restoring glucose level, hydration status, and electrolytes imbalance. Emergency physicians are a cornerstone in the management of DKA and should be aware of its importance.


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JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY
JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY
Journal of Biochemical Technology is a double-blind peer reviewed International Journal published by the Deniz Publication on behalf of the Biochemical Technology Society, a Registered Charity Organization from India

AREA OF INTEREST
AREA OF INTEREST
new advances in enzymatic and protein mechanims; applied molecular genetics and biotechnology; genomics and proteomics; metabolic; medical, environmental, food and agro biotechnology.

FOCUS AND SCOPE
FOCUS AND SCOPE
Journal of Biochemical Technology provides a publication on all aspects of biochemistry, biotechnology & bioinformatics and applications in biology and medicine. Areas of high interest cover new advances in enzymatic and protein mechanisms; applied molecular genetics and biotechnology; computational biology, genomics and proteomics; metabolic & tissue engineering; medical, environmental, Pharmacy and pharmaceutical chemistry, food and agro-biotechnology.

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This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Keywords include, Biochemical Research: Endo/exocytosis, Trafficking, Membrane Biology, Cell Migration, Cell-Matrix Organelle Biogenesis, Cytoskeleton Proteolysis, Cell Death, Cell Cycle, Cancer, Cell Growth/Death, Differentiation, Drug Targets, Gene Therapy, Models of Disease, Proteomics, Stem Cells, Bioenergetics, Mitochondria, Free Radicals, Redox Signaling, Ion Transport/Channels, Oxidative