Background: Thyroid gland disorders can vary from neoplastic, inflammatory, and endocrine anomalies with 11% of the general population are affected. Thus, the management of such disorders is important and is a must for clinicians to decide the appropriate plan, either conservative or surgical. Objectives: In this review, we aimed to assess literature linked to thyroid surgery, indications and complications, and recent updates to the procedure. Methodology: PubMed database was used for articles selection, papers were obtained and reviewed. PubMed database was used for articles selection, and the following keys terms: thyroid surgery, postoperative complications, and endoscopic procedure. Conclusion: The best treatment for postoperative complications of thyroid surgery is prevention. Prophylactic drains prevent neck hematomas from expanding and compromising the airway. Meticulous knowledge of thyroid anatomy would decrease the chances of accidental parathyroidectomy, or vessel injury, or recurrent laryngeal nerve injury.