2020 Volume 11 Issue 3

Diversity Wild Mushrooms in the Community Forest of Na Si Nuan Sub-District, Thailand

Thalisa Yuwa-amornpitak*, Pa-Nag Yeunyaw


Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity of edible mushrooms in the community forest of Na Si Nuan sub-district. Twenty-seven species of mushrooms were found, and 24 were edible. Three species were not recorded for eating, and 1 of them was similar to Scleroderma. Mushrooms were identified by their morphology and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA and then categorized into 13 families. Eight and seven species of mushrooms were placed in Russulaceae and Boletaceae, respectively. Two species of mushrooms were categorized in the families Tricholomataceae and Clavariaceae. Only 1 species was found in each family of Pluteaceae, Amanitaceae, Agaricaceae, Schizophyllaceae, Auriculaceae, Hymeogasteraceae, Diplocystaceae, and Sclerodermataceae. The internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA sequences of all mushrooms was homologous with the GenBank database, with similarities between 59-100%. Only 9 species from the morphology studies were given the same scientific name as that in the sequence databases: RDEN, REME, AHEM, TCLY, TALB, CMIS, CTA, PHY, and ALPO. The others were the same at the genus level except for SCHI and some Boletus spp. The molecular phylogenetic analysis of 27 mushroom sequences showed high genetics relatedness with reference strains. ‎‎

Key words: Macrofungi, Mutualistic association, Phylogenetic tree, Internal transcribed spacer (ITS)‎


Introduction

Functional foods like mushrooms have a wide range of biomolecules with nutritional and medicinal substances (Thaper and Lakshmi, 2017; Mirzaei et al., 2018). Mushrooms are macrofungi (Mansoury, 2019; Al-Zahrani and Bukhari, 2019), and there are approximately 27,000 species widely distributed around the world (Chang and Miles, 2004), with especially high diversity in tropical regions. They are found in a great variety of habitats. Some can grow on rotting logs and animal dung (e.g., saprophyte and parasite), and some mushrooms fruit on the ground beneath or nearby a tree (e.g., ectomycorrhiza). Ectomycorrhizal mushrooms normally live symbiotically with the hairy roots of living plants (Smith and Read, 1997). Currently, more than 100 species of saprophyte mushrooms can be cultivated at the industrial level (Stamets, 1993), such as Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajor-caju, and Lentinus squarrosulus. Mycorrhizae represent symbiotic mutualistic relationships between soil fungi and fine plant roots. Ectomycorrhiza (ECM) is a type of mycorrhiza associated with the plant root system, enhancing plant uptake of minerals and drought tolerance. In contrast, the host plant provides photosynthetic products and a place to live to ECM. Dipterocarpaceae contains a group of dominant timber species found in Southeast Asia, including Thailand, and is associated with various types of ECM fungi (Cheevadhanarak and Ratchadawong, 2006). Most of them are Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes, of them some are edible mushrooms, for example, the most famous and expensive food, truffle (Hall et al., 1998). In addition, most wild edible mushrooms are ectomycorrhizal fungi. Edible mycorrhizal mushrooms have been collected and consumed for centuries. 

The classical method for identifying mushrooms is by observing the morphology of the macroscopic (shape and surface of cap, shape and position of stipe, and color), and microscopic structures (structure, shape, size, and color of spores). Though this method takes a long time and is difficult to identify closely related species (Appiah et al., 2017). Therefore, this method needs a well-trained mycologist for identification. The molecular technique is a rapid method, highly specific, and accurate to identify (Aslam et al., 2017). Therefore, this study used morphological structures and molecular techniques to analyze the internal transcript spacer region for identifying and phylogenetic relationships between mushrooms.

Materials and Method

Sample collection

All mushrooms were collected from the local forest of Na Si Nuan sub-district (in a plant genetic conservation project under the Royal Initiative of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn at Mahasarakham University), Kantarawichai, Maha Sarakham. The site is located between 16°20’20.5”-16°20’34.6”N and 103°12’44.1”-103°12’45.6”E. The average area covered is approximately 0.065 km2. Small pieces of fresh mushrooms were kept in absolute ethanol and stored at -20°C until use. Complete and fresh sporocarps were identified by morphology using relevant literature (Chandrasrikul et al., 2008; Soithong, 1994; Arora, 1986). The samples were dried at 50°C. Some parts of dried mushrooms were grounded for antioxidant determination (Yuwa-amornpitak et al., 2020).

DNA Extraction and Phylogenetic Tree Construction

The mushroom sample was immersed in absolute ethanol and dried by adsorbing with paper to remove ethanol before DNA extraction with an extraction kit (Vivantis, GF1). The ITS rRNA was amplified by PCR. A diluted genomic DNA template (1 µl) was mixed with 1 µl of each primer (ITS5F: 5’-GGAAGTAAAAGTCGTAACAAGG-3’ and ITS4R:  5’-TCCTCCGCTTATTGATATGC-3’) at a concentration of 20 pmol/µl and master mix with Taq DNA polymerase (Vivantis) for a total volume of 25 µl. Amplification conditions were as follows: denaturation at 94°C for 3 min, 30 cycles of denaturation at 94°C for 40 s, annealing at 55°C for 40 s, and extension at 72°C for 1 min. The final extension was performed at 72°C for 7 min.

The PCR products of the ITS region from each mushroom were sequenced by Sanger Coulson’s method (Sanger et al., 1980) using ABI BigDye (R) Terminator v3.1 Cycle Sequencing Kit (Applied Biosystems). The sequences were searched for the most similar sequence from the GenBank database with the blastn tool (https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ Blast), as shown in Table 2. The sequences of mushrooms and from the GenBank database were aligned by Clustal Omega (https://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/msa/clustalo/). The alignment of all sequences was examined and adjusted manually by Texpad 8 software. The final alignment was formatted as a MEGA file (MEGA version 6). Neighbor-joining (NJ) analysis was used to generate the distance matrix and produce a tree with 1000 bootstrap replicates. Maximum parsimony (MP) analysis was also conducted by bootstrapping 1000 replicates with MEGA6.0.6. The NJ tree and MP tree are shown in Figures 2 and 3, respectively.

Results and Discussion

Twenty-seven wild mushroom species from the community forest of the Na Si Nuan district were collected and identified (Figure 1). They were studied and identified by morphology. The results are presented in Table 1 with the local name and code. They were placed in 12 families: Russulaceae (8), Boletaceae (7), Tricholomataceae (2), Clavariaceae (2), Plutaceae (2), Lycoperdaceae (1), Schizophyllaceae (1), Auriculaceae (1), Hymeogasteraceae (1), Astracaceae (1), and Sclerodermataceae (1). The code of each species was used to easily remember and represent the local and scientific names. Only in the rainy season (June–October) all mushrooms were found. However, Hed-Poa and Hed-Ra-ngok-luang were found only in the early rainy season (June – July). Hed-Kai-na-kao, Hed-Kai-na-luang, and Hed-Hai-na-keaw were often found in the rainy season, especially when they were abundant at the end of the rainy season. Hed-Pluak-jig and Hed Pluak-tab are termite mushrooms and were also abundant at the end of the rainy season. Termite mushrooms are preferred for eating by local people, including three types of Hed-Kai (Hed-Kai-na-kao, Hed-Kai-na-luang, Hed-Hai-na-keaw). Hed-Kho-na-dang, Hed-Tan-lek, Hed-na-kao, and Boletus species were often found in the rainy season but not in abundance. Hed-Klum-ma, Hed-Sai-duan, Hed-Ta-poo, Hed-Teen-took-kae, Hed-Hoo-noo, and Hed-Pa-ka-lung1 were not abundant. Furthermore, Scleroderma sp. was not abundant and was found only at the end of the rainy season.

From the blastn search tool, the most similar sequence was aligned again with Clustal Omega (https://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/msa/clustalo/). The similarity and gap of each sample are shown in Table 2, with the length between 512-810 base pairs. The similarity and gap of each pair were between 59-100% and 0-8.33%, respectively. Most mushroom samples were identified at the genus level. Only 9 samples were fitted to both genus and species levels. These 9 included Russula densifolia, Russula cf. rosaceae, Amanita hemibapha, Termitomyces cylindricus, Termitomyces fuliginosus, Calvatia craniiformis, Clavulina cf. cristata, Phylloporus gajari, and Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis, with percentage similarity (and gap) of 92.98 (0.79), 94.64 (1.17), 96.28(0), 99.70 (0), 82.25(0.49), 99.69(0), 99.69(0), 100(0), and 98.76 (0.15), respectively. Although the similarity of some species was greater than 90%, they were not determined at the species level. These included FLAV, RHET, RALB, SCY, SCHI, AUAR, BOSP, BOL2, BOL3, and ASTA. These results may be because the morphology of each mushroom in the different areas is different and there is no sequence database for those mushrooms in GenBank.

 

 

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

Figure 1. Wild mushrooms collected from the local forest of Na Si Nuan district; mushroom codes: A = RAMY, B = RLIC, C = FLAV, D = RHET, E = RDEN, F = RALB, G = REME, H = LAC, I = AHEM, J = AVAT, K = TCLY, L = TALB, M = CMIS,N = SCY, O = CTA, P = SCHI, Q = AUAR, R = BOSP, S = BOL1, T = BOL2, U = BOL3, V = PHY, W = BOL5, X = BOL6, Y = ALPO, Z = ASTA, Ω = MSU1.

Table 1. Identification of wild mushrooms by morphology, with the local name, code, and scientific name.

No.

Local Name

Code

Order

Family

Scientific Name

1

Hed-Koh-na-dang

RAMY

Russulales

Russulaceae

Russula emetica

2

Hed-Kai-na-kao

RLIC

Russulales

Russulaceae

Russula delica

3

Hed-Kai-na-luang

FLAV

Russulales

Russulaceae

Russula flavida

4

Hed-Kai-na-keaw

RHET

Russulales

Russulaceae

Russula virescens

5

Hed-Tan-lek

RDEN

Russulales

Russulaceae

Russula densifolia

6

Hed-Na-kao

RALB

Russulales

Russulaceae

Russula alboareolata

7

Hed-Dang-ku-lab

REME

Russulales

Russulaceae

Russula rosacea

8

Hed-Nam-noom

LAC

Russulales

Russulaceae

Lactarius sp.

9

Hed-Ra-ngok-luang

AHEM

Agaricales

Pluteaceae

Amanita hemibapha

10

Hed-Sai-duan

AVAT

Agaricales

Pluteaceae

Amanita vaginata

11

Hed-Pluak-jig

TCLY

Agaricales

Tricholomataceae

Termitomyces clypeatus

12

Hed-Pluak-tab

TALB

Agaricales

Tricholomataceae

Termitomyces fluliginosus

13

Hed-Ta-poo

CMIS

Agaricales

Lycoperdaceae

Calvatia craniformis

14

Hed-Pa-ka-lung1

SCY

Agaricales

Clavariaceae

Scytinopogon sp.

15

Hed-Pa-ka-lung2

CTA

Agaricales

Clavariaceae

Clavulina cristata

16

Hed-Teen-took-kae

SCHI

Agaricales

Schizophyllaceae

Schizophyllum commune

17

Hed-Hoo-noo

AUAR

Auriculariales

Auriculariaceae

Auricularia sp.

18

Hed-Pung-khom

BOSP

Boletales

Boletaceae

Boletus sp.

19

Hed-Peung-No1

BOL1

Boletales

Boletaceae

Boletus sp.

20

Hed-Peung-No.2

BOL2

Boletales

Boletaceae

Boletus sp.

21

Hed-Peung-No.3

BOL3

Boletales

Boletaceae

Boletus sp.

22

Hed-Peung-No.4

PHY

Boletales

Boletaceae

Phylloporus gajari

23

Hed-Peung-No.5

BOL5

Boletales

Boletaceae

Boletus sp.

24

Hed-Peung-No.6

BOL6

Boletales

Boletaceae

Boletus sp.

25

Hed-Klum-ma

ALPO

Boletales

Hymeogasteraceae

Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis

26

Hed-Poa

ASTA

Boletales

Astraceae

Astraeus hygrometricus

27

-

MSU1

Boletales

Sclerodermata

Scleroderma sp.

Table 2:  Similarity of ITS sequences of wild mushrooms with the GenBank database.

No.

Local or code name/(code)

(Scientific Name)*

GenBank similar species  (Access No.)**

Similarity,

%

Gap,

%

Alignment base pair

Access No.

1

Hed-Koh-na-dang (RAMY)

(Russula emetica)

Russula lepida

(KX655855)

89.47

4.93

608

MN580109

2

Hed-Kai-na-kao (RLIC)

(Russula delica)

Russula crustosa

(EU598193)

87.31

1.83

654

MN580110

3

Hed-Kai-na-luang (FLAV)

(Russula flavida)

Russula delica

(AF345250)

98.08

0

600

MN580111

4

Hed-Kai-na-keaw (RHET)

(Russula virescens)

Russula aeruginosa

(LC008520)

97.76

0.15

670

MN580112

5

Hed-Tan-lek (RDEN)

(Russula densifolia)

Russula densifolia

(AB291763)

92.98

0.79

627

MN580113

6

Hed-Na-kao (RALB)

(Russula alboareolata)

Unculture Fungus

(JN969391)

94.03

0.34

586

MN580114

7

Hed-Dang-ku-lab (REME)

(Russula rosaceae)

Russula cf. rosaceae

(AB459514)

94.64

1.17

597

MN580115

8

Hed-Nam-noom (LAC)

(Lactarius sp.)

Lactarius picinus

(JQ446129)

83.96

1.88

636

MN580116

9

Hed-Ra-Ngok-Luang AHEM)

(Amanita hemibapha)

Amanita hemibapha

(LC068802)

96.28

0

512

MN580117

10

Hed-Sai-Duan/(AVAT)

(Amanita vaginata)

Amanita sp.

(AB854646)

76.17

3.06

554

MN580118

11

Hed-Pluak-Jig/(TCLY)

(Termitomyces clypeatus)

Termitomyces cylindricus (LC068786)

99.70

0

673

MN580119

12

Hed-Pluak-Tab/(TALB)

(Termitomyces fuliginosus)

Termitomyces fuliginosus

(KX781739)

82.25

0.49

648

MN580120

13

Hed-Ta-poo (CMIS)

(Calvatia craniiformis)

Calvatia craniiformis

(MH916598)

99.69

0

649

MN580121

14

Hed-Pa-ka-lang 1 (SCY)

(Scytinopogon sp.)

Scytinopogon sp.

(KT804576)

95.71

0.49

607

MN580122

15

Hed-Pa-ka-lang 2(CTA)

(Clavulina cistata)

Clavulina cf. cristata

(AB459513)

99.69

0

664

MN580123

16

Hed-Teen-took-kae (SCHI)

(Schizophyllum commune)

Hohenbuehelia grisea (MF150036)

94.51

0.81

614

MN580124

 

Table 2 (continued)

No.

Local or code name/(code)

(Scientific Name)*

GenBank similar species

(Access No.)**

Similarity,

%

Gap,

%

Alignment base pair

Access No.

17

Hed-Hoo-noo (AUAR)

(Auricularia sp.)

Auricularia cornea

(KX022016)

98.22

0.178

561

MN580125

18

Hed-Pung-khom (BOSP)

(Boletus sp.)

Boletus griseipurpureus

(KF442409)

94.70

1.06

661

MN580126

19

Hed-Peung-No.1 (BOL1)

(Boletus sp.)

Tylopilus plubeoviolaceoides

(KM975490)

77.05

9.11

558

MN580127

20

Hed-Peung-No.2 (BOL2)

(Boletus sp.)

Indoporus shorea

(NR161157)

95.05

0.09

526

MN580127

21

Hed-Peung-No.3 (BOL3)

Boletus sp.

Sepedonium chrysospermum

(KT946851)

96.17

0.19

522

MN580129

22

Hed-Peung-No.4 (PHY)

(Phylloporus gajari)

Phylloporus gajari (NR155649)

100

0

588

MN580130

23

Hed-Peung-No.5 (BOL5)

(Boletus sp.)

Boletus fraternus

(MH211928)

72.32

1.53

655

MN580131

24

Hed-Peung-No.6 (BOL6)

(Boletus sp.)

Boletus sp. MES235

(FJ480441)

79.11

4.15

747

MN580132

25

Hed-Klum-ma (ALPO)

(Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis)

Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis

(LC068799)

98.76

0.15

647

MN203105

26

Hed-Poa (ASTA)

(Astraeus hygrometricus)

Astraeus asiaticus

(EU718089)

96.58

0.28

702

MN203104

27

(MSU1)

(Scleroderma sp.)

Scleroderma sp.

(MG833748)

59.45

8.33

624

MN203106

*Scientific name by morphological identification

 

Molecular phylogenetic trees from neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods were analyzed by MEGA 6.0.6 and are shown in Figures 2 and 3, respectively. Both trees showed the same placement of each species with homologous ITS sequence from GenBank database and percentage confident placing with the 1000 replicate bootstraps. The NJ and MP tree consisted of 3 clades (A, B, and C). The Russulales, Agaricales and Aphyllophoreales orders were closely related and grouped in clade A. However, the results also showed that the order Boletales was divergent, and it separated into 2 clades, B and C. However, the two clades were sisters.

 

 

Figure 2. Neighbor-joining tree generated from the ITS regions of 27 wild mushrooms (code). Numbers on nodes indicate the bootstrap percentage of 1000 replicates.

Figure 3. The consensus tree of the maximum parsimony trees generated by the ITS regions of 27 wild mushrooms (code). The number on each node indicates the bootstrap percentage of 1000 replicates.

 

In addition, the tree showed 100 percentages from bootstrapping, which revealed they were very closely related. They included ALPO, BOL2, BOL3, PHY, REME, AHEM, AVAT, SCY, CMIS, and CTA, which were highly confident for identifying Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis, Indoporus shorea, Sepedonium chrysospermum, Phylloporus gajari, Russula cf. rosaceae, Amanita hemibapha, Amanita sp., Scytinopogon sp., Calvatia craniiformis, and Clavulina cf. cristata, respectively. This study indicated that the local forest of the Na Si Nuan district is a small area but still has a diverse selection of wild edible mushrooms. Dipterocarp forest is still the dominant timber tree that produces various types of mushrooms for mushroom hunters.

There are color differences in the mushroom cap in Russula specie of Hed-kai group (white, yellow, and green). They were identified as Hed-kai-na-kao (Russula delica, RLIC), Hed-kai-na-luang (R. flavida, FLAV), and Hed-kai-na-keaw (R. virescences, RHET), respectively. However, the ITS sequences of those mushrooms were blasted against sequences from GenBank database; the results showed that the first, second and the third species were similar to Russula crustose (Accession no. EU598193), Russula delica (AF345250), and Russula aeruginosa (LC008520) with the similarity of 87.31, 98.08, and 97.76%, respectively. However, they were not matched with morphological identification. Furthermore, more results showed that the identification by morphology was not matched with sequence alignment despite high similarity (more than 90%)  as shown in Table 2, for example, Hed-Poa (ASTA), Hed-teen took-kae (SCHI), and Hed-Pluak-Jig (TCLY).

In this study, fruit bodies of 27 species of wild mushrooms were collected. The relationship between them was analyzed and the molecular phylogenetic tree was reconstructed. It was found that most of the species (18 species) were grouped in clade A. They were grill and jelly mushrooms of the order Russulales, Agaricales, and Auricularles. Clade B and C were very closely related. They were placed in the order Boletales (9 species). Some species of mushrooms that were found in this study were distributed in other areas; for example, Amanita hemibapha was also found in Phuphan National Park, Thailand (Wongchalee and Pukahute, 2012) and Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal in India (Das et al., 2013). Schizophyllum commune is reported from many countries, such as Nigeria (Adeniyi et al., 2018), China (Appiah et al., 2017), India (Ao et al., 2016), and Thailand (in this study). Astraeus hygrometricus was also collected by Das and colleagues (Das et al., 2013). However, molecular identification of mushrooms with 100% homology of gene sequence are difficult, due to the difference in the gene sequence by the difference ecological areas where mushrooms are present (Olusegun, 2014).   

 

Conclusions

Although the local forest of Na Si Nuan district is a small area, but still there are diverse wild edible mushrooms. Dry Dipterocarp forest is still the dominant timber tree that produced various types of mushrooms for local mushroom hunters. 

  

Acknowledgments

We appreciate the plant genetic conservation project under the Royal Initiative of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn. This work was supported by two grants from the Faculty of Technology and Mahasarakham University (project number 6105056).

 

References

 

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